"Motivation is defined as a process that arouses directs and maintain behavior".
The following part of the brain are involved in motivation.


This part of brain is known to be a critical importance in the system of eating, drinking, sleeping, sexual and emotional behavior. The general location of this part is between midbrain and diencephalon and is physically at the base of cerebellum, lying above the optic chiasm and is adjacent to the pituitary gland.
It is consisted on 3 major Zones carried 14 major nuclei. The zones are anterior hypothalamus, the lateral hypothalamus and the ventro medial hypothalamus. The nuclei are interconnected in a very complex form and controlled different aspects of body e.g gustatory and somatosensory, olfactory, sensory system and lower portion or regions and the most anterior of the body.


The part of limbic system the covered sea horse shaped brain structure of mostly gray matter. It runs from the dorsal part to the Corpus Callusum. It has primary function in the mediation of olfactory and visceral process. As a part of limbic system it is also considered a major region of motivation. The lesion in this region may become the disability of motivation.
Amygadala and Almond shaped neural structure comprises the part of the temporal lobe. It is involved in the regulation of Homeostasis which means the process in which the body's substances and characteristics such as temprature, glucose level and maintain required level.

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"Thirst an internal physiological state that results from water dispiration".

The body contain four major fluid compartments, one is Intra Cellular the other three are Extra Cellular fluid compartments. The compartments which is found within the cell is called Intra Cellular. The fluid portion of the cytoplasm of the cell or the fluid contained within the cell.
The rest of fluid is known to be Extra Cellular fluid or the fluid outside the cell. It is divided into three major compartments.

I) Inter Stitial Fluid.
It means that baths. The cell filling the space between the cells of the body.
II) Blood Plasma/ Intra Vascular Fluid.
This fluid is found within the Vessels.
III) Cerebro Spinal Fluid.
It is similar to blood plasma that is found in the ventricular system of the brain and the subarchnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

The intra cellular fluid is controlled by the concentrations of Solutes in the inter stitial fluid.


A solid compound that is desorption in liquid or solution normally inter-stitial fluid is "Isotomic" which means equal to osmotic pressure to the contents of the cell. A cell placed in isotomic solution neither loses nor gain water, due to this aspect water does not move into or outside the cell, while the inter-stitial loses water. The losing of water is known to be "hypertonic" and another hand if the inter-stitial fluid gains water is called "hypotonic".


Reduction in the volume of the intra vascular fluid. Litrarily ,earns low volume of blood. Due to this problem Heart can no longer pump the blood and Heart failure can occur. In other words there are two important characteristics of the body fluid which maintain the body system.
1) The solute concentration of intra cellular compartments.
2) Volume of blood.
Water regulates with above methods.

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Types of Thirst

Thirst means a sensation that people say that they are dehydrated or tendency to suck water and to ingest it. There are two kinds of thirst.

1. Osmomatric Thirst

The term means to the fact that three detectors or actually responding to change in the concentration of the inter-stitial fluid that surrounds them. Osmosis means the movement of water through semipermeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to one of high solute concentration.
Semipermeable membrane -- A membrane that allows some but not all molecules to pass through osmomatric thirst produce by an increase in the osmomatric pressure of the inter-stitial fluid relative to intra-cellular, thus produce cellular dehydration.
Osmosis receptors -- Neurons that detect in the solute concentration of the intra-stitial fluid that surrounds in and are responsible of osmomatric thirst and located in the region of the anterior of hypothalamus.
Thirst osmomatric -- Thirst produce by increase in the relative osmatic pressure of extra cellular fluid which results from loss of cellular fluid.
Thirst volumetric -- Thirst produce by decrease amount of extra cellular fluid in the body.

2. Volumetric Thirst

This type of thirst is associated with the decrease volume of the blood or blood plasma or decrease in intra vascular volume and it occur mostly through evaporation or through loss of blood, vomiting and diarrhea.
Receptors of kidney -- These are the receptors which controlled the secretion of Angiotensin.
Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that constrict blood vessels causes the retension of sodium and water produce thirst and salt appetite.
Receptors of Heart and Blood -- These are also known as arterial baror receptors. These are associated with the volumetric thirst lie within the heart which contains sensory neurons when the blood plasma fall in the vessels. These receptors detect the change and stimulate processes.

Organum Vasculosum of the Lamina terminals (OVLT)

A circum ventricular organ located anterior portion of the third ventricle served by fenestrated capillaries and it is known to be blood brain barrier.

Sub Fornical Organ (SFO)

A small organ located in the lateral ventricle attached to the underside of the fornics contain neurons that detect the presence of angiotensin in the blood and excite neural circuits that initiate drinking.
Neural Mechanism of Thirst
1) Some part of anterior third ventricle and dorsal.
2) Hormones get signals from angiotensin.

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When we eat , we must satiation obtain adequate amount of carbohydrates, fats, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. This amount supplied us fuel and reservoirs in our body.These reservoirs are short and long term. Short term reservoirs base on carbohydrates and long term stores fats. The short term is located in the cells of liver and muscles and is field with complex insoluble carbohydrates called Glycogen. This is the conversion of glucose into glycogen in a liver functioning process. While the long term reservoirs consist of adipose tissues (fatty tissues). This is filled with fats or "triglycerides" which are the complex molecules that contain 'glycerol' or 'glycine' combined with 3 fatty acids.

1) Stearic acid.
2) Oliec acid.
3) Palmit acid.

Adipose tissue is found beneath the skin and abdominal cavity. It consists of cells absorbing nutrients from the blood, converting them into triglycerides and storing them. This is called the Metabolism of eating and the phase through all process occur is called absorptive phase.
The brain lives on glucose and the rest of the body lives on fatty acids. The brain contain detectors that monitor the availability of glucose inside the blood brain barrier (the vessels which bear blood and supplies blood to the brain) and the liver contain the detectors that monitor the availability of nutrients (glucose and fatty acids) outside the blood brain barrier.
Hypoglycemia is a potent stimulus for hunger. If a dramatic fall in the level of glucose occur due to some factors. That is known to be glucoprivation (hypoglycemia) or the deprivation of glucose in the cells which stimulate eating hunger. Hunger is also associated lipoprivation which means a fall in the level of fatty acids.

Satiety Signals

There are two sources.
Short term Satiety signals
Eyes, nose, mouth, stomach, dudemum, liver. Each part signals to brain that indicate the food has injusted and processing on the way toward absorption.
Long term Satiety signals
These signals are associated with the calories by modulating the sensitivity of brain mechanism involved in hunger.

Some Other Factors

1) Head factors
These factors refers to the several sets of receptors located in the head, eye, nose, throat and tongue.
2) Gastric factors
The stomach contain receptors that detect the presence of food.
3) Intestinal factors
Intestines contain also some detectors which are sensitive to the presence of glucose, amino acids and fatty acids. Their axons send statiey signals to the brain.
4) Liver factors
Liver receives nutrients from the intestine and send signals to the brain.

Neural Mechanism

Brain Stem
Brain stem contains neural circuits that are able to control food and satiation or physiological hunger signals such as glucose signals by means of decrease in glucose metabolism or food in the digestive system. In the brain stem the area "Posterma" and "nucleus of the solitary track" region (AP/NST) receives signals from tongue, stomach, small intestine and liver and sends information to the lateral "Para brachial nucleus" of the pones which passes the information to many regions of the brain. These signals help to control food intake.
Para Brachial Nucleus
A nucleus in the pons that receives gustatory information and informations from the liver and digestive system and relays it to the forbrain.


The two important portions of hypothalamus the lateral and ventro medial nucleus controlled hunger and satiety signals.

5-HT (NTM)

It inhibit eating especially carbohydrates.

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Eating Disoders

1. Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. Body mass index (BMI), a measurement which compares weight and height, defines people as overweight (pre-obese) if their BMI is between 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2, and obese when it is greater than 30 kg/m2.
Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breathing difficulties during sleep, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive dietary calories, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility, although a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications or psychiatric illness. Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited; on average obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.
Dieting and physical exercise are the mainstays of treatment for obesity. Moreover, it is important to improve diet quality by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods such as those high in fat and sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber. To supplement this, or in case of failure, anti-obesity drugs may be taken to reduce appetite or inhibit fat absorption. In severe cases, surgery is performed or an intragastric balloon is placed to reduce stomach volume and/or bowel length, leading to earlier satiation and reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.
Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Obesity is stigmatized in much of the modern world (particularly in the Western world), though it was widely perceived as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times in history, and still is in some parts of the world.

Childhood obesity can begin as early as 9 Months of age, Researchers Find

Everyone loves a roly-poly baby. Still, there is such a thing as an overweight infant, and obese babies -- even those as young as 9 months -- are predisposed to being obese later in life, researchers say in Friday's issue of the American Journal of Health Promotion.

Childhood obesity is a growing public health problem in the United States.  It has been linked to psychological problems, asthma, cardiovascular troubles and a greater chance of developing diabetes.

Hoping to better understand the factors associated with being obese at a very early age -- and possibly help parents and health advocates stave off its ill effects -- lead author Brian G. Moss of Wayne State University and William H. Yeaton of the University of Michigan analyzed data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative sample of American children born in 2001.

RELATED: Obesity prevention starts early -- really, really early

The data included height, weight and demographic characteristics of 8,900 9-month-old babies and 7,500 2-year-old toddlers. Obese children were defined as those who exceeded the 95th percentile for body-mass index (as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), and those between the 85th and 95th percentile were considered "at risk."

Moss and Yeaton found that 32% of children were either obese or at risk of obesity by the tender age of 9 months.  That figure increased to 34% by the time the munchkins reached their second birthdays.

"We weren't surprised by the prevalence rates we found in our study, but we were surprised the trend began at such a young age," Moss said in a statement.

Among the patterns that emerged:
  • Boys were more at risk than girls (this contradicted earlier research). 
  • Latinos had the highest risk.
  • Geographic location was not consistently associated with being obese or at risk.
  • The family's socioeconomic status didn't seem to make a difference at 9 months of age. But by two years, the kids in the bottom economic 20% were most likely to be obese or at risk, while those in the top 20% were least likely to be obese or at risk.
No one is suggesting that babies be put on a diet. But knowing more about the demographic characteristics of very young children who are more likely to become obese could help health officials and parents prevent later health troubles by promoting healthier eating and lifestyle choices.

RELATED: A new map of childhood obesity in the U.S.
2. Anorexia Nervousa (Loss of Peptite)

This disorder is most frequently affect young women concerned with over weight that leads to excessive dieting and often compulsive exercising can lead to starvation.
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by refusal to maintain a healthy body weight and an obsessive fear of gaining weight, often coupled with a distorted self image which may be maintained by various cognitive biases that alter how the affected individual evaluates and thinks about her or his body, food and eating. Persons with anorexia nervosa continue to feel hunger, but deny themselves all but very small quantities of food. The average caloric intake of a person with anorexia nervosa is 600-800 calories per day, but in extreme cases self-starvation is more extreme.It is a serious mental illness with a high incidence of comorbidity and the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder.
It can affect men and women of all ages, races, socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds.Anorexia nervosa occurs in the ratio of 1:10 in males:females.
The term anorexia nervosa was established in 1873 by Sir William Gull, one of Queen Victoria's personal physicians. The term is of Greek origin: an- (ἀν-, prefix denoting negation) and orexis (ὄρεξις, "appetite"), thus meaning a lack of desire to eat.

3. Bulimia Nervousa

Bouse - (ox) Greek word
Limos - (Hunger)

Bouse of excessive hunger and eating often followed by forced vomiting or the loss of control over food intake.
Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by restraining of food intake for a period of time followed by an over intake or binging period that results in feelings of guilt and low self-esteem. The median age of onset is 18. Sufferers attempt to overcome these feelings through a number of ways. The most common form is defensive vomiting, sometimes called purging; fasting, the use of laxatives, enemas, diuretics, and over exercising are also common. Bulimia nervosa is nine times more likely to occur in women than men (Barker 2003). Antidepressants, especially SSRIs are widely used in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. (Newell and Gournay 2000).
The word bulimia derives from the Latin (būlīmia), which originally comes from the Greek βουλιμία (boulīmia; ravenous hunger), a compound of βους (bous), ox + λιμός (līmos), hunger. Bulimia nervosa was named and first described by the British psychiatrist Gerald Russell in 1979.

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Circadian Rhythms and Zeitgebers

It is defined as a daily rhythmical change in behavior or physiological process, such rhythms are controlled by mechanism within the organism by internal clock which is a biological clock. In the brain the principal biological clock appears to be located in suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) -- a nucleus situated atop the optic chiasm. It contains a biological clock responsible for organizing many of the body circadian rhythms.


A stimulus that reset the biological clock responsible for circadian rhythms. In animals Pineal gland controls circadian rhythms.

Biological Basis of Behavior
Aggressive Behavior
"An emotional state consisting felling of hate and desire to inflict harm. Overt response that involves actual or intended destruction of other organisms". OR "A species typical behavior at pattern of movements, biting, striking ets".


Threat Behavior
A behavior which is consisted on postures or jestures that warm the adversely to leave or it will become the target or attack.
Defensive Behavior
A behavior that occures against the threatening situation or behavior.
Submissive Behavior
A behavior which indicate that it accepts defeat and will not challange the other one.
Predated Behavior
Behavior which is consist of an attack of one organism at an individual of another specie on which the attacking animals.

Neural Control of Aggressive Behavior

The activity of brain stem circuits appears to be controlled by hypothalmus and amygadala which have a special influence on a species typical behavior. The activity of these parts of brain is controlled by perceptual system that detect the status of environment including the presence of other behaviors while specifically. The defensive and predators is attached with the pre-aquaductal gray matter (PAG) of midbrain. While as aggressive behavior is along wth the above said part the seretonergic synapes involved in this behavior.

Aggression in Male and Female

Aggression in male and female is controlled by neural circuits that are stimulated by endrogen gland. Androginization has an organization affects. The secretion of theis gland is associated with male and female Sexual behavior. Androgin secrets a hormone testosterm and projesterm which facilitate the Sexual organ and are involved in agression behavior.

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Temperature Regulation

Human body automatically maintains a constant body temperature of 37*c or 98.6*F. This temperature may fluctuate itself according to the nature of environment. This automatically system maintain the body internal condition and it is known to be homeostasis which means a state of balance or equilibrium among internal physiological condition. When human body alterate the temperature regulation according to the alteration. This process is known to be endotherm which means any process that in response to alteration of a given condition.

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Neurological Techniques

1. CT Scan (Computerized Tomography Scanner)

(Some Writing about Brain with Computer)
It is also called CAT-Computerized Axial Topography.It is a technique in which a device is used with computer to analyze data obtained by the scanning a beam of x-ray to procedure a two dimensional picture of a slice through body.It was firstly introduced in 1983. It an important medical toll for structural imaging of neurological damage in living people.This method is used for the diagnostic process of "Strock, Hemorrhage, Tumor and so on and some disorders of Memory, Language, Attention and other cognitive functions.It is also involved in finding out some "Lesion" of the brain.
Procedurally the patient's head is traced in a wrong shaped instrument.This ring is contained X-ray tube directly opposite to patient's head.A ray of beam passes through the patient's head and detector measures the amount of radio-activity and computer translate the number from the detector into pictures of the skull and its contents.

2. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

This technique is resembled to CT-Scan but it does not use X-ray.A strong magnetic field is used which is consist on Radio-waves and strong magnetic field. MRI is used to see the individual's Sulci (miner parts of cerebral cortex). It is also involved for the diagnostic of demilenation which is the major characteristic multiple sclerosis.
Procedurally a person's body is placed in a strong magnetic field.The nuclei of some atoms in molecules in the body spin with a particular orientation. A radio frequency is passed to the body.These nuclei emit radio waves of their own. For this purpose different molecules emit energy at different frequencies. MRI scanner is tuned to detect the radiation of this radiation prepare pictures of slices of brain.

Converging Techniques

1. TMS (Trans Cranial Magnetic Stimulation)

This method is used to stimulation of cortex by the magnetic field produce by alternating current passing through a coil placed against the skull disrupts normal activities of the affected brain regions.
Procedurally it is consisted of a tidily wrapped wire coil that is in cased in an insulated sheet and connected to a source of powerful electrical capacitor.This capacitor send a large electrical current through the coil resulting in the generation of magnetic field.When the coil is placed on the surface of skull the magnetic field passes through the skin and induced a physiological current that result in the firing of neuron.
This method is used to explore the role of many different brain areas.This method is specially used in Clinical Psychology.

2. EEG (Electro Encephlo Gram)

It is defined as an electrical brain potential recorded by placing electrodes on the scalp.This method is mostly used to diagnose Epilepsy, Brain tumour and stages of sleep.It is also called writings of electricity from the brain. It is also known as recording and study of gross electrical activity of the brain recorded from large electrodes placed on the Head.
Hans Berger discovered this method in 1924.

3. ERP (Event Related Potential)

This method is also known as Evoked Potential in which gross potential charges evoked by discrete stimuli such as light flashes etc. The ERP provide a way to assess the integrity and function of the brain "STEM" and especially its Auditory pathways, it detects in the brain activity rapidly.

4. MEG (Magneto Encephlo Graphy)

It is a technique which is used to measure the magnetic signals generated by the brain measured by sensitive magnetic detectors places along the head similar to the way EEG measure the surface electrical activity.

5. f MRI (Functional MRI)

It is the modification of MRI, just like MRI scanner acquire images rapidly and permit the measurement of regional metabolism in the brain. It is the more advance method which revealed more detail information about the activity of the brain.

6. PET (Positron Emission Topography)

This method is used to measure the metabolic activity of the specific brain region.

Lesion Technique

Lesion mean an injury or wound so it is defined as technique in which behavior of organism with its brain is studied e.g Low behavior is altered by selective removing one or two parts of the brain. Procedurally it can be done through surgery or by excitotoxically.

Knock out Procedure

This technique is used for the alternation and elimination of the specific genes. This technique is used to study behavioral changes that occure in organism that have developed without the targeted genes or to observed how genes code the development of nervous system.

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Top 1 Education

Study Online or in UK. MBA, M.Sc Finance, M.Sc Marketing or LLM from top British institution. £9500 Scholarship Available. Apply today.

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Psychology Education

Oxford University. Associate's, Master's, MBA's, M phil's & Doctoral Degrees.. For those ready to take a step into the real-world.

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Grand Canyon University an Rankings

Grand Canyon University - Bachelor’s and Master’s Degrees. Grand Canyon University is a college in a Christian community that provides many advantages that many other online colleges do not offer. Each student is handled individually at Grand Canyon, where a great administrative staff makes sure every need is met.

College and University Rankings

The College and university rankings are a lists of universities and liberal arts colleges in higher education.Rankings can be based on subjectively perceived "quality," on some combination of empirical statistics, or on surveys of educators, scholars, students, prospective students or others. Rankings are often consulted by prospective students and their parents in the university and college admissions process.

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Dopamine (DA)

One of the catecholamine NTM based on amines.One amine produce both excitatory and inhibitory.Post synaptic potentials depending on post-synaptic receptors.It is involved in movement, attention, learning and reinforcing effects of drugs that people tends to abuse.

Bio Synthesis
  • It is synthesized by an essential amino acid tyrosine.
  • An enzyme converts tyrosine into L-Dopa.
  • Another enzyme converts L-Dopa into Dopamine.

In liver

Tyrosine____ L-Dopa____ Dopamine____ No-epinephrine


It is a biological active form of dopamine the precursor of catecholamine often used to treat for Parkinson because of its effect a dopamine agonist.

Controlling Drugs of Dopamine

1. Agonist

A drug which facilitate the effects of a particular neurotransmitter on the post-synaptic cell.

2. Antagonist

A drug that oppose or inhibit the effects of a particular NTM on the post-synaptic cell.

Systems of Dopaminergic Neuron

The brain contains three important systems of dopaminergic neuron.Three systems are found in dopamine system in blood is called dopaminergic neuron system.

1. Nigrostriatal System

It means the system of neuron which originate in the substatia nigra and project their axons to neostriatum which is important part of basal ganglia involved in the control of movement.

2. Mesolimbic System

A system of dopaminergic neuron originate in the ventral tegmental area and terminating their axons in the frontal cortex, amygadala and hypo-campus.

3. Mesocortical System

The system of dopaminergic neuron originating in the ventral tegmental area and terminating in the pre-frontal cortex located in the ventral tegmention area.These neuron effect such function as formation of short-term memory, planing preparation and problem solving.

Receptors of Dopamine

At least five types of dopamine receptors.

D1, D2, D3, D4, D5
D1 or D2 are more common receptors.

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"Memory is defined as the activity to remember past events, information and skills".
"It is a mental capacity to store and later recall or recognized events that were previously experienced".

According to Cognitive Psychologist

"Memory is perceptual mental active system that receives encode modify and retrieves information".
Types of Memory
  • Sensory Memory
  • Short-term Memory
  • Long-term Memory
1. Sensory Memory

Kind of memory which last only for mili seconds but its capacity is essentially unlimited in what may be taken.

2. Short-term Memory

Type of memory which is of limited capacity over 2-7 bits of information and degrades over a matter of seconds, if information is not transferred to a long-term memory.

3. Long-term Memory

The unlimited capacity and relatively permanent traces of memory which lasts months and years.Such ability is called long-term memory.Neuro-psychologist are more concerned with long-term memory and its disorders.

Sub-systems of Long-term Memory

1. Declarative Memory

A form of memory that is explicit verbalize and excess-able to conscious awareness.This term comes from declare which means to proclaim to announce.

Sub Types

I. Semantic Memory

It is generalized memory such as knowing the meaning of word with knowing where or when you learned that words.

II. Episodic Memory

Episodic memory is autobiographical memory that pertain to a person's particular history.When we recall specific episodes or relate an event to a particular time and place.

Brain Areas Involved in Declarative Memory

Research has implicated 3 major structures which are involved in declarative memory.

I. The 1st center around the Medial Temporal Lobe

This center is mostly consisted on the hypo-campus and medial temporal lobe.Neuro-psychologist believed periphinal and para-hypo-campus cortex's adjacent to hypocampal formation have a deep role in memory.

II. The 2nd center which is around the Diencephala

the structure of diencephla involved in memory centered around specific nuclei of the thalamus and mamillary bodies of the hypothalamus.This thalamus consist of several nuclei which the dorsal medial nucleus of the thalamus which is often implicated and korsa koffa syndrome and in some case of amnesia.

III. The Basal fore-brain

The basal fore-brain is a sub cortical part of the talencephala surrounding the inferior tips of the frontal horns and is interconnected with limbic structure, a part of limbic system. Expert suggest that extensive damage of basal fore-brain affected the memory.Another system of declarative memory is called paps circuit which is an anatomic circuit central around the hypo-campus plays a deep role in the declarative memory processing.

2. Procedural Memory

Non declarative memory include instances of perceptual stimulus response and motor learning that are not necessarily conscious or the memory demonstrated by means where by conscious awareness is not always necessarily such as skill learning and conditioning. Non declarative memory appears operate automatically.

Sub Types

I. Skill Learning

In this type subjects perform a challenging task on repeated trails in one or more.

II. Priming/Repeation

Priming is also called repeation.Priming refers to the fact that when people perceive a particular stimulus.It becomes easier for them to perceive again.

III. Conditioning

Very simple it means salivation when you see a favorite food.

Areas Neural Model for Non-declarative Memory

1. Temporal Lobe

The area of the cortex consisted on two hemispheres Right and Left.

Researchers suggest that the temporal cortex makes a significant contribution in the memory.Due to impairment of these hemispheres memory function may become disturb e.g Right temporal lobe removal patients are impaired on face recognition, spatial position and maze learning test. Left temporal lesion functional impairment can create disturbances in the recall of word's list, recall of constant diagrams, non spatial association, regulation of non sense figure, tunes and previously seen photographs.
Due to cortical cortex injuries in partial posterior or temporal lobe and occipital lobe produce long-term memory difficulties e.g color amnesia, phase amnesia, prosopagnosia, object amnesia, topographically amnesia (Inability to recall the location of the environment).Damage of cortex can calls Alzheimer's desease.

2. Amygdala

This part is composed of number of separate nuclei.Each has its specific functions and are associated emotional events.It is much involved in memory.
  • The medial nucleus
  • The lateral
  • The central nucleus
  • The basal nucleus
  • The medial nucleus is consisted on several sub nuclei that receive sensory inputs.
3. Hipocampus

Studies indicate that the damages in hypo-campus can create spatial memory e.g field difficulty of remembering ability.

4. The Periphinal Cortex

The damage to the periphinal the most lateral position of the medial temporal lobe caused visual tasks or recognition memory defects.

5. The Basal Fore-brain

The area just anterior to the hypothalamus in which polynergic fibers lie.The polynergic fibers projects to all cortical areas and provided up-to 70 percent of polynergic synapse in these areas.These cells are actively involved in memory functions.Impairments in this area creates some kind of amnesia.

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Disorders of Memory

"Memory is defined as the activity to remember past events, information and skills".

1. Amnesia

"Complete or partial loss of memory due to the psychological and neurological problems known as Amnesia".

I. Anterograde Amnesia

It refers to difficulty in learning new information.A person with it can remember events that occured in the past during the time before the brain damage occured but can't retain information.He / She encounters after the damage or very very simply the loss of memory for events after Trauma or desease.Such kind of amnesia is caused by damage to the temporal lobe.
Scoville and Milner 1957 reported that lateral removal of the medial temporal lobe produce a memory impairments in human beings excluding temporal lobe dmageness of hypo-campus may became the source of such amnesia.

II. Retrograde Amnesia

Difficulty inability to recall past events.It refers to the inability to remember events that happened before the brain damage occured or in other word the loss of old memory prior to an event or illness.

2. Alzheimer Disease

"It is a neurological disorder / desease which is caused to deterioration of intellectual abilities resulting from an organic brain disorders. It is characterized by progressive loss of memory and other mental function".
Person forgets his appointments and person's names.his desease is produce by sever degeneration of hippo-campus. neo-cortex and especially the association cortex of the frontal and temporal lobes.


1. Neuritic Plaques
2. Nero Fiberi-llary Tangles

Impair memory and learning problem at all level (encoding, storage, retrieval and retention).The brain that holds previously well semantic knowledge.Information unorganized associational frame work begin to deteriorate.

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A type of compound from of a number of amino-acid molecule linked together can be regarded as "formed by a reaction of a carboxyl group of amino-acid reacts with the amino-acid groups of another amino-acid with elimination water. The linked b/w amino-acid called peptide bonds".

Many peptide procedure by cell of brain serve as NTM, neuro=-modulators or hormone protein.All peptides are produced from precursor molecules.Peptides are released from all parts of the terminal button into the synaptic cleft by neuron.


Peptides play a primary role in chemical transmitting information in the nervous system and are active in other process of body.

Bio Synthesis
  • Peptide from precursor molecules.
  • These precursor are broken into pieces by special enzymes.
  • Synthesis of peptides takes place in the soma.These chemicals must be delivered to the terminal buttons.
Families of Peptides

1. Endogenous Opioid

These drugs reduce pain because they have direct effect on the brain.

2. Enkephalins Receptors

Pert, Snowman and Synder (1974) are discovered the localized region which carry the several receptors which respond to Opiate.These receptors are called enkephalos receptors or peptides.

Opiate Receptors

U = (mu, receptors)
D = (delta receptors)
K = (kapra receptors)

Behavioral Effects
  • It reduces pain or sensitivity to pain.
  • It is involved in species typical behavior.
  • It is responsible for regulating / controlling eating.
  • It activate thrust (angiotensin peptides).
  • It regulates urinary activities of the kidneys.

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Acetylcholine (Ach)

Acetylcholine is the primary NTM secreted by efferent axons of the central nervous system (CNS). Ach is also found at the majority of synapse where one nerve cell needs another nerve and produced Ach.These synapse are said to be acetylcholinergic synapse. They from the para-sympathetic nervous system.This chemical substance is stores in the viscles near the synapse and released when a nerve impulse arrives.

Bio Synthesis

It is composed of two components.

1. Choline

A substance derived from the breakdown of lipids.

2. Acetate (Acetic Acid)

Acetate transferred from a molecule CoA (Acetyl-CoA) which is produced by mitochondria.


CoA+Acetate____ ChAT (Choline Aceytl transferase)____ Acetylcholine (Ach)

Behavioral Effects
  • The acytlcholinergic neurons located in the dorsal lateral pons are responsible of REM (Rapid Eye Movement).
  • The neurons which are located in the basal fore-brain are involved in learning especially in perceptual learning.
  • Muscular movement is accomplished by the release of Ach.
  • The neurons which are located in the medial septum control the electrical rhythms of hyppocmpus, formate the kind of memories.
Receptors of Acytlcholine

Nicotinic Receptors

It is stimulated by nicotine (A drug found in tobacco leaves).

Muscrainic Receptors

It is stimulated by muscrainic (A drug found in the poison mushroom) (Amanita muscaria).

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An indolamine neurotransmitter on of the subgroup of mono-amine/amines also called 5-HT or 5-hydroxytryptamine.Its chemical name is 5-HT. It is discovered by Jouvet. It is produced by raphe nuclei near the mid brain and project axons to the cerebral cortex.
According to dictionary of biology "serotonin acts on muscles and nerves".It controls dilation and constriction of blood vessels and effects gestro intestinal tracks/region. ts also related to depression.

Bio Synthesis

The precursor of 5-HT is the amines acid tryptophan.An enzyme converts tryptophan to 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan). Another enzyme converts 5-HTP to 5-HT (serotonin).


Tryptophan_____ 5-HTP______ 5-HT.

Behavioral Effects
  • 5-HT plays a role in the regulation of mood.
  • It controls the eating, sleep and arousal activities.
  • It controls and regulate pain.
  • It is also involved in dreaming.
  • Studies indicate that suicidal depression is related to 5-HT level.
Serotonergic Neuron

The neurons are found in the nine cluster.The most of the clusters are located in the raphe nuclei of the mid brain pones and medulla.The two most important clusters are found in the dorsal and medulla.The two most important clusters are found in the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei.
Like Nor-epinephrine, 5-HT is released from varicosities. Investigators have identified nine different types of serotonin receptors.

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Nor-epinephrine (NE)

Nor-epinephrine is a catecholamines which is found in the brain and in the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS).It is hormone produced by the adrenal medulla, the central core of the adrenal glands, located just above the kidneys. Epinephrine also serves as the NTM in brain.

Bio Synthesis

It is synthesized by an important amino acid Tyrosine. An enzyme converts it into L-dopa. another enzyme converts into dopamine and finally the dopamine converts into Nor-epinephrine with the conversion of an enzyme.


Tyrosine______ L-Dopa______ Dopamine______ Nor-epinephrine.

Systems of Noradernergic Neurons

The neurons which are attached to (NE) are known noradernergic neurons.Almost every region of the brain receives input from noradernergic neurons.The cell bodies of most of these neurons are located in the seven regions of the pons and medulla and one region of the thalamus.The cell bodies of the most important noradrenergic system begin in the locus coreuleus, a neucleus located in the dorsal pons.The axons of these neurons project to widespread regions of the brain.One effect of activation of these neurons is an increase in vigilance attentiveness to events in the environment.

Release of NE

Most neurons that released nor-epinephrine through axonal varicosities and through terminal button on the ends of axonal branches.

Noradernergic Receptors

These are several types of adernergic receptors which are synonymous to the noradernergic receptors and are sensitive to nor-epinephrine.These receptors are divided into four types which are known to be adernergic receptors or nonadernergic receptors. B1, B2, a1, a2. Found in various organs of the body and brain.

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Neuro Chemistry


Neurotransmitters are the chemical molecules released at the synapse that in-general will either excite or inhibit a relation in the cell, on the other side of the synapse and also excite or inhibit the nerve muscles and gland cells. NTM discovered by LOWEI in 1921. NTM is a group of Amines, Amino Acids and Mono-amines.


A group of large organic compounds e.g Biogenic- Characteristics of living things through reproduction the other living things including behavior and biological system.

Amino Acids

A large group compound marked by the presence of both on Amine group and Carboxyl group, each is known to be the source of energy for metabolism and growth.

Amines group a molecule composed of two atoms of hydrogen and one nitrogen.

Carboxyl group a molecule made up of two oxygen atoms and one hydrogen atom bound to carbon atom.

Types of Amino Acids

There are two types.

1. Essential Amino acids
2. Non-Essential Amino acids

Families of Neurotransmitters

Family l
  • Acetylcholine (ACH)
  • Nor-epinephrine (NE)
  • Dopamine (DA)
  • Serotonin (5-HT)
Family ll
  • Glycerin
  • Glutamic Acid
  • Aspartic Acid
  • Gama Amino Beatrice Acid (GABA)
Family lll
  • Peptides (A Chain of Amino Acids)

A class of amines that includes indolamines such as serotonin and catecholamines such as dopamine, nor-epinephrine and epinephrine.

Acetylcholine (ACh)

A neurotransmitter which is widely used in the body and neurons that release the central nervous system used Acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter.

Nor-epinephrine (NE)

It belongs to amines. it is used in the neurons that run or work to the heart blood vessels and other organs.

Dopamine (DA)

A neurotransmitter one of the catecholamines related to muscles and it controls the secretion of Pituitary gland's hormone prolaction.

Serotonin (5-HT)

An amino-acid based NTM which controls and appears in the spinal cord and the lower portion of the brain.

Glutamic Acid

It is principally found in the brain and spinal cord.It is also produces in the cell's metabolic process.It is consisted on 4 receptors.

1. NDMA Receptors
2. AMPA Receptors
3. Kainate Receptors
4. Metabotrpic Receptors

Gama Amino Beutric Acid (GABA)

It is found in the brain and spinal cord and is consisted on 2 receptors.

1. GABA-a Receptors______ control chloride channels.

2. GABA-b Receptors______ control potassium channels.

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Short Question of Neuroscience


A nucleus which transmits auditory and somatosensory information to amygadala.


EMG (Electro-myogram) These are electrodes which record the electrical potential muscles activity and placed on the chin and scalp to the electro-physiological measurements.
EOG (Electro-oculogram) These are the electrodes which are attached to the eyes and measures the eye movements.These electrodes are also attached to the EEG and monitor the electro-physiological movements of the body during sleep and wakeful conditions.

REM Sleep, N-REM Sleep

REM (Rapid Eye Movement) This is a phase of sleep in which the dreams occur and muscular paralysis occur. It is also called Paradoxical Sleep.

N-REM (Non Rapid Eye Movement)
It is called Orthodox sleep. This is the phase of sleep in which the dreams are not occur and it is consisted on Four stages of sleep e.g First to Four and Delta Theta activities are occur in this stage.

Basic Rest Activity Cycle (BRAC)

This concept was given by Kleitman 1982 which means a 90-mint cycle in (Human) Waxing and Waning alertness controlled by a Biological Clock in the caudal brain sterm. This cycle controls cycles of REM sleep and Slow Waves Sleep.

Retrograde Amnesia, Antrograde Amnesia

These are the types of Amnesia in Retrograde refers to the inability to remember events that happened before the brain damage.This occur due to Head Injury or electro convulsive shocket (ECT).

While in Antrograde Amnesia is for events that occur after some disturbance to the brain such as Head Injury or certain Degenerative Brain diseases.

Dementia and Delirium

Dementia is a Neurological disorder which is based on the progressively deterioration of Cognitive abilities resulting from the organic brain disorder.

is also a Neurological disorder of Cloudy consciousness in which person feels difficulty in concentrating and focusing, attention and hallucinations of different kind may occur during Delirium.

Types of Thirst

Thirst is a physiological motivation and it is a tendency to seek water and to ingest it.

Thirst is divided into Two types.

Osmometric Thirst
Volumetric Thirst

Osmometric thirst produced by an increase in the osmotic pressure of the inter stital fluid relative to the Intera Cellular Fluid, thus producing cellular dehydration.

Volumetric thirst
occur when the volume of the blood plasma, the intra vascular volume decrease, This thirst can also occur due ti the loss blood, vomiting. Loss of blood volume is called Hypovolemia.
Emboli and Thrombi

Emboli is a Clot or other plug brought through the blood from a large Vessel and forced into smaller one where it obstruct circulation. It most effect the middle artery of the left side of brain.

is a plug or clot in a blood vessel that has coagulate and remained at the point of its formation.

Semantic and Procedural Memory

Semantic memory is a kind of memory which covers ideas, rules and general concepts about the world. It develops after the procedural memory.

While Procedural memory is defined as the memory which covers specific events, objects and situation e.g Last night which film was seen.
Antibodies, Anti-genes

Antibody is a protein produced by a cell of the immune system that recognizes anti-genes present on invading micro organism.

is also a protein present on a micro organism that permits the immune system to recognize it as an invader.

B-Lymphocyte, T-Lymphocyte, B-Amyloid

B-lymphocyte is a white blood cell that originates in the bone marrow which is considerd an important part of the immune system.This is antibody.

is a defense by the immune system which is develop in the Thymus Gland. These cells are white cells and produce antibodies.

B-amyloid is a protein found in excessive amounts in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Surface Dyslexia, Phonological Dyslexia (faulty reading)

Surface Dyslexia is a reading disorder in which a person can read words phonetically but has difficulty reading irregularly spelled words by the whole word method.

While Phonological Dyslexia is also a reading disorder in which a person can read familiar words but has difficulty in reading of unfamiliar words or pronounceable non-words.

Dysgraphia, Dyslexia

Both are associated with the reading and writing deficits.
Dysgraphia refers to writing deficit While Dyslexia refers to reading deficits.

Aphasia, Anomia

Aphasia means difficulty in producing or comprehending speech not produced by deafness or a simple motor deficit caused by brain damage.

means difficulty in finding the appropriate word to describe an object action or attribute one of the symptoms of aphasia.

NMDA, AMPA Receptors

NMDA receptors are specialized ionotrpic glutamate receptors that controls the calcium channels that are normally blocked Mg2.

AMPA receptors
are also ionotropic glutamate receptors that controls the sodium channels.

Glucoprivation, Lippoprivation

Glucoprivation means a dramatic fall in the level of glucose available to cell.

While Lippoprivation means a dramatic fall in fatty acids available to cell.

Fasting, Absorptive Phases

Fasting phase of eating Metabolism during which nutrients are not available from the digestive system.

While Absorptive phase means a phase of metabolism during which nutrients are absorbed from the digestive system and glycogen and triglycerides occur.

Glycogen, Triglycerides

The insoluble carbohydrates is called Glycogen which is produced by liver.

While Triglycerides is a form of fat storage in adipose cells consist on three fatty acids.

Homeostasis, Endo-therm

The process by which body's substances and characteristics are maintained at their optimal level e.g temperature and glucose level etc.

While the fluctuation in the characteristics is according to required environments is called endo-therm.

Hyper-tonic, Hypo-tonic

Both concepts are associated with thirst.

Hyper-tonic is the characteristic of a solution that contains enough solute that it will draw water out of a cell placed in it trough the process of osmosis.

the characteristic of a solution that contains so little solute that a cell placed in it will absorb water through the process of osmosis.

Sleep Apnea, Cataplexy, Narcolepsy, Insomnia

Sleep Apnea is a sleep disorder which means fall asleep and then cease to breath.

is the composition of two words Kata means Down and Plexus means Stroke, so it is the symptom of Narcolepsy in which a complete paralysis occur that waking.

is sleep disorder characterized by periods of irresistible sleep , simply sleep attack in-appropriate time.

a general term for chronic inability to sleep normally as evidenced by difficulty in falling asleep.

Endogenous, Enkephalin Opioid

Endogenous is a class of peptides secreted by the brain that acts as opiates.

While Enkephalin is one of the endogenous opioid.

Kinate, Metabotropic Receptors

These are the glutamate receptors, Kinate controls the sodium channels.

While Metabotropic receptors are also glutamate receptors that controls the calcium channels.

Blood Brain Barrier

A Barrier produced by the astrocytes and cells in the walls of the capillaries in in the brain. This barrier permits passage of only certain substances.

Hy-polarization, Depolarization

Hy-polarization means an increase in the Membrane potential of a cell relative to the normal resting potential.
Depolarization means Reduction (towards zero) of Membrane potential of a cell from its normal resting potential.

Ionotropic, Metabotropic Receptors

Ionotropic is a receptor that contains a binding site for a Neurotransmitter and an ion channel that opens when a molecule of the neurotransmitter attacked to the binding site.

Metabotropic is a receptor that contains a binding site for a neurotransmitter activates an Enzyme that begins a series of events that opens an ion channel else where in the membrane of the cell when a molecule of the neurotransmitter attach to the binding site.

Antagonis, Agonist

Both concepts are associated with the Psycho-pharmacology.
Antagonis is defined as the drug which oppose or inhibit the effects of a particular neurotransmitter on the post synaptic cell.

Agonist is defined as a drug that facilitates the effects of a particular neurotransmitter on the post synaptic cell.

Grand Mal, Petit Mal Epilepsy / Seizure

Both are the types of Generalized Epilepsy.
Grand mal epilepsy is also called Tonic Clonic epilepsy.This type of epilepsy is consisted two phases tonic and clonic and characterized by convulsion in limbs, Lose control over body, disturbance of motor system of brain and rolling of eye ball.

Petit mal is also called absence and Myocronic epilepsy and is associated with the children of 4 to 14 years old. It is consisted on two types 1 Typical 2 A-typical absence. It is characterized by the following symptoms like fluttering of eyelids, stereo type hand movement and myocronic jerks etc.

Placebo Effect

An observed effect on behavior that is caused by a placebo which means innocuos substance without a specific physiological effect. In simple a preparation with no medical value and no pharmacological effects.This is widely used and to be found in situations having nothing to do with the study of drugs.

Intra-cellular, Extra-cellular Fluids and Inter Stitial Fluid

The fluid which is found within the cell.According to experts round 80 - 70% water is found in the shape of fluid in the cell.This fluid is called Intra-cellular fluid.

The Extra-cellular fluid is the fluid which is found outside the cell.

Inter Stitial fluids e.g blood plasma and CSF (Cerebro Spinal Fluid). The Inter-stitial fluid is fluid that baths the cells of the body, filling the space between the cell of the body.

Spinal, Cranial Nerves

The nerves which are attached with the Spinal Cord, these nerves begin at the junction of the dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord.These nerves are consisted on 31 pairs.

The Cranial nerves are the nerves of PNS and are attached with the cranium or brain and consisted on 12 pairs among there pairs 10th pair which is called Vagus is the longest pair which is attached with Abdominal functions.


It means located on the same side of the body as the point of reference.

Tectum, Tegmentum

Tectum means the Roof of the mid brain consisted on the inferior and superior colliculie.
the Tegmentum is the portion of the mid brain beneath the tectum containing the Red Nucleus.Reticular formation, Substabtia Nigra and Pareiaqueductal gray matter.

Auto Receptors, Auto Topagnosia

Auto receptors are the receptors molecules located on a neuron that respond to the Neurotransmitter that neuron itself secret.Some auto receptors are located on the Presynaptic Membrane.

Auto Topagnosia mean an inability to name body parts or to identify body parts that another person names.

Obstructive Hydro Cephlllus (Waterhead)

A condition in which all or some of the brain's Ventricles are enlarged caused by an Obstruction that impedes the normal flow of CSF.

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Meaninig of Research

Webster international dictionary proposes a very inclusive definition of research as

"A careful critical inquiry or examination in seeking facts or principals and investigation in order to ascertain something".
"The activities that go by the name of research involves mainly a "Re-search".

i-e activities undertaken to repeat a search.It may be stated that research refers to " a critical and exhaustive investigations or experimentation having its aim the revision of accepted conclusions in the light of newly discovered facts".

Oxford English Dictionary

"A search again and repeatedly".
D Sleswinger and Stephenson in the encyclopedia of social sciences defines research as
"The manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge uses in construction of theory or in the practice of an art".

Types of Research

There are two major types


1. Pure_____ Research that is motivated by the desire to know or understand for the sake of knowing is called Pure or Basic research".

2. Applied_____By the desire to know in order to use this knowledge for practical concerns is called applied research"

Qualities of Researcher

Sir Michael Foster identifies in the main two qualities of a researcher.

1. This nature must be one that vibrate in unison with that of which he is in search, the seeker after truth must himself be truthful, truthful with truthfulness of nature.Truthfulness corresponds to the desire for accuracy of observation and precision of statement.

First to make sure of facts is a fundamental precept in science.But this is no easy matter.The difficulty here may be due to the untrained eye, which sees only that which it has the power of seeing___sometimes little indeed .It may be due to preconception which often make men see what is not to be seen.It also may be due to lack of discipline in the method of science.
The unscientific man is often content with proximately "nearly" etc, but nature never is .It is not her way to call the same two things which differ however minutely.

2. He must be alert mind nature is ever making signs to us, she is ever whispering to us the beginnings of her secrets.The scientific must be ever on the watch, ready at once to lay hold nature's hint, however small to listen to her whisper however low.Receptivity to the hints and gestures of nature is something that has to be cultivated slowly and patiently.It is not given to ignorant and the common to see unusual behind the routine.It demands a systematic immersion into the subject matter to be able to catch the slightest hint that may give birth to significant research problem.

Cohen and Nagol points out the ability to Percival in some bute experience the occasion for a research problem is not a common talent among is a mark of scientific genious to be sensitive to difficulties where less gifted people pass by in-troubled by doubt.

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Research Methodology

Research________Any honest attempt to study a problem systematically OR to add to man's knowledge of a problem may be regarded as research. (Theodorsem 1969 New york)

Methodology______Broadly the formulation of systematic and logically coherent methods for the search for knowledge.It is strictly speaking not concerned directly with the accumulation of knowledge or understanding but rather with the methods and procedures by which such knowledge and understanding are achieved.

What is science?

Science is a process or method for generating a body of knowledge.

In daily routine we use the word "science" in three ways or meanings.

Science as Knowledge
Science as Behavior
Science as Investigation

Scientific Method of Research

Psychology as a science uses the scientific method which is a set of procedures designed to establish general laws.Through evaluating theories that attempt to describe explain and predict phenomena.The scientific method involves explicitly stated theories.Hypothesis are made from such theories and their systematic critical evaluation through objective, controlled, empirical investigations and conclusions that are open to public scrutiny, analysis and replication is the scientific method.

Conclusions about reality can be made in at least four different ways.

On Faith
On Common Sense or Intuition
On Logic
Analysis of Empirical Data

Scientific method can be broken down into a series of five steps.

1. Identifying the Problem and Hypothesis Formation

The beginning point of any scientific method involves identifying a problem , which is actually a simple process.All one has to do look at the events taking place and numerous problems that need solutions.Child abuse, Cancer, Alcoholism and crime are just a few of the more apparent problems.Once the problem has been stated researchable hypothesis are formulated.

2. Designing the Experiment

Designing the experiment is very crucial stage.Proper controls over extraneous variables have to be established and the experimental variables as well as the response variable must be specified.

3. Conducting the Experiment

After the experiment has been designed the researcher must make a number of very important decisions regarding the actual conduct of experiment.What subjects are to be used , what instructions are necessary and what equipment and materials are needed.

4. Hypothesis Testing

After the data have been collected the experimenters must analyze and interpret the data to determine if the stated hypothesis have been sported.The investigators must decide on the appropriate statistical analysis.

5. Communicating the Research Results

After the data have been analyzed the scientist want to communicate the results to others.Communication most frequently takes place through the professional journals in a field.Consequently the scientist must write a research report that states how the research was conducted and what was found.

Unscientific / Nonscientific Methods of Knowing

1. Tenacity

It means the "quality or state of holding fast".This is based on superstitions because superstitions represents beliefs that are reacted to as if they were fact.

2. Intuition

It is defined as "the act or process of coming to direct knowledge or certainty without reasoning.

3. Authority

As a method of acquiring knowledge represents an acceptance of information or facts stated by another because that person is a highly respected source.

4. Rationalism

It means that knowledge acquired through reasoning.This approach uses reasoning to arrive at knowledge and assumes that valid knowledge is acquired if the correct reasoning process is used the following........
All men are mortal: Socrates is a man therefore Socrates is mortal.

5. Empiricism

The final method of gaining knowledge is empiricism.Some one says that "I would not believe until I see it". This statement illustrates the empirical approach and indicates that we tend to believe the information through our senses.
What is wrong with this approach? Although this approach is very appealing but there are so many dangers if it is alone used.Our perceptions are affected by a number of variables.Research has demonstrated that variables such as past experiences and our motives at the time of perceiving can drastically alter what we see.Research has also revealed that our memory for events does not remain constant.
Not only do we tend to forget things but at that times an actual distortion may take place.The situations we experiences may represent biased sample which could lead to an inaccurate conclusion.If for example you have contact only ten females all of whom were tall, you would probably conclude that all women were extremely tall.The bias in your sample of women would lead you to an inaccurate conclusion.

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Research Problem and Hypothesis



"Hypothesis is testable statement of a potential relationship between two or more variables".
"A strategy adopted in order to solve some problem".

Kinds of Hypothesis

1. Scientific Hypothesis

Scientific hypothesis represents the predicted relationship among the variables being investigated.

2. Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis represents a statement of no relationship among the two or more variables being investigated.
For example____Someone wanted to explore the nature of the memory deficits that occur through the influence of alcohol.In scientific hypothesis the relationship between alcohol and memory is a factual event.When intoxicated individual would fail to recall meaningful content during the taking of alcohol.But in same circumstances the null hypothesis insist that it makes no difference at all.The meaningful content recall even who have approached alcohol or who did not do so.Null hypothesis rejects that there is relationship between alcohol and memory recall.

Sources of Hypothesis
Sources of Research Topic
Sources of Research-able Problem

With the above reference of the headings first of all the question is this that where do ideas or problems originate?
Where should we look for a researchable problem?
In all fields of life there are a number of common sources of problems such as

A. Existing Theories
B. Past Research

Being a student of psychology or being a social scientist or psychologist, we are formulated that we draw so much from everyday life .The things we___________Read about, See about, Hear about.
If you ask the question "why" you will find many researchable topics.

There are only four sources.

1. Theory
2. Everyday Life
3. Practical Issues
4. Past Research

Now we will discuss the four sources in detail.

1. Theory

A theory defined as "A group of logically organized laws"(Marx)

Theory is of two type functions.According to Marx

1. Tool Function Theory
2. Goal Function Theory

The tool function is evidenced by the proportions that theories guide research.
The goal function is that laws are ordered and integrated by theories; Theories summarizes and integrate existing knowledge.

2. Everyday Life

As we proceed through the daily routine dictated by our current point in life, we come into contact with many phenomena that pose questions in need of solution.
Parents want to know how to handle their children , students want to know how to learn material faster.When we interact with others or see others react, we note many individual differences.When one is observing children on a play ground, these differences are readily apparent, one child may be very aggressive, while an other is much more reserved, waiting for others to encourage interaction.The response of a particular person also vary according to the situation.A child who is very aggressive in one situation may be very passive in another.why do these differences exist not only among children but also within the same child.

What produces these varying responses?
Why are some people leader and other followers?
Why do we like some people and not others?

These are many researchable questions that can be identified from the interactions and personal experiences that every one has.

3. Practical Issues

Many experimental problems arise from practical issues that require solutions.
Private industry faces problems such as employee moral, absenteeism, turnover, selection and placement to name only a few. Counseling and clinical psychology is the need of a great deal of research to identify more efficient modes of dealing with mental disturbances. Units of the federal and provincial governments also support experimentation designed to solve practical problems. The government is spending large sum of money to find a cure for Cancer, Hepatitis, TB, Drug-addiction and so many such an other problems. Large expenditures are also being directed toward finding better ways to conduct the educational process.
Grievous crimes such as Kidnapping, Murder, Rape, Smuggling the young children for Camel Race are required such a measure that if not these have been stopped but should be minimized in any situation.
Above mention all are practical concerns required solution.

4. Past Research

Previously conducted research/experiments are an excellent source of research ideas.Each well-designed study does provide additional knowledge, phenomena are multi-determined.In any experiment only a limited number of variables can be studied.Investigation of certain variables may lead to hypothesis about the effects of other variables.

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What is Problem

When we have already collected some knowledge and that knowledge indicates that there is something we do not know.It may be that we simply do not have enough information to answer a question, it may be that the knowledge that we have in such a state of disorder that it cannot be adequately related to the question.In either case we have a problem .

Making Problem Research-able
Formulation of Research Problem

What is research problem?

An interrogation sentence or statement that asks;
"What relation exists between two or more variables".?

Kerlinger 1973 presents three criteria that good problems must meet.

1. The variables in the problem should express a relation.This was contained in the definition of problem.
2. The second criteria is that "the problem should be stated in question form...the statement should begin with what".
3. The third criteria one that most frequently distinguishes a research-able from a non-researchable problem states that "the problem statement should be such as to imply possibilities of empirical testing".

Specificity of the Question

In formulating a problem specificity of the research question is an important consideration.Think of the difficulties facing the experimenter asking the following question."What effect dose the environment have on learning ability? This question meets all the criteria of a problem and yet it is stated in such a vague way that the investigator could not pinpoint what was to be investigated.The concept of environment and learning ability are vague (What environmental characteristics? Learning of what?)
The experimenter must specify what is meant by environment and by learning ability to be able to conduct the experiment contrast this question which the following:

"What effect does the amount of exposure to words have on the speed with which they are learned?"

This question specifies exactly what the problem is.
A specific statement helps to ensure that the experimenters understand the problem.If the problem is vaguely stated the experimenters probably do not know exactly what they want to study and therefore may design a study that will not provide a solution to the problem. A specific problem statement also assists in the decisions that must be made about such factors as subjects, apparatus, instruments and measures.

Formulation of the Hypothesis

After the completing of four sources of hypothesis i-e Theory, Everyday life, Practical issues and Past research, then someone should record the statement of problem.The problem should be stated in question form.These someone should begin formulating the hypothesis.Hypothesis serve a valuable function.Always hypothesis derived from knowledge obtained from the theory, everyday life experiences, practical issues and past research.Such prior knowledge serves as the basis for the hypothesis.If the experiment confirms the hypothesis then in addition to providing an answer to the question asked, it gives to the additional support to the literature that suggested the hypothesis.
But what if the hypothesis is not confirmed by the experiment then either the hypothesis false or some error exists in the conception of the hypothesis.Failure to support a hypothesis may indicate that something is wrong and its up to the experimenter to discover what it is.Once the experimenter uncovers what he thinks is wrong, a new hypothesis is made to be tested experimentally. Even if the hypothesis is false, knowledge has been advanced we must formulate another hypothesis to test in order to reach a solution to the problem.

Characteristics of the Hypothesis
  • Must be testable.
  • Should be in general harmony with other hypothesis in the field of investigation.
  • Should be parsimonious.
  • Should answer (be relevant to) the particular problem dressed and not some other one.
  • Should have logical simplicity.
  • Should be expressed in quantified form.
  • Should have a large number of consequences and should be general in scope.
  • Hypothesis are never absolutely true or false but have a determine-able degree of probability.
  • Hypothesis are basically stated as general implications.

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Selecting the Survey Method

Selecting the type of survey you are going to use is one of the most critical decisions in many social research contexts. You'll see that there are very few simple rules that will make the decision for you -- you have to use your judgment to balance the advantages and disadvantages of different survey types. Here, all I want to do is give you a number of questions you might ask that can help guide your decision.

Population Issues

The first set of considerations have to do with the population and its accessibility.

Can the population be enumerated?

For some populations, you have a complete listing of the units that will be sampled. For others, such a list is difficult or impossible to compile. For instance, there are complete listings of registered voters or person with active drivers licenses. But no one keeps a complete list of homeless people. If you are doing a study that requires input from homeless persons, you are very likely going to need to go and find the respondents personally. In such contexts, you can pretty much rule out the idea of mail surveys or telephone interviews.

Is the population literate?

Questionnaires require that your respondents can read. While this might seem initially like a reasonable assumption for many adult populations, we know from recent research that the instance of adult illiteracy is alarmingly high. And, even if your respondents can read to some degree, your questionnaire may contain difficult or technical vocabulary. Clearly, there are some populations that you would expect to be illiterate. Young children would not be good targets for questionnaires.

Are there language issues?

We live in a multilingual world. Virtually every society has members who speak other than the predominant language. Some countries (like Canada) are officially multilingual. And, our increasingly global economy requires us to do research that spans countries and language groups. Can you produce multiple versions of your questionnaire? For mail instruments, can you know in advance the language your respondent speaks, or do you send multiple translations of your instrument? Can you be confident that important connotations in your instrument are not culturally specific? Could some of the important nuances get lost in the process of translating your questions?

Will the population cooperate?

People who do research on immigration issues have a difficult methodological problem. They often need to speak with undocumented immigrants or people who may be able to identify others who are. Why would we expect those respondents to cooperate? Although the researcher may mean no harm, the respondents are at considerable risk legally if information they divulge should get into the hand of the authorities. The same can be said for any target group that is engaging in illegal or unpopular activities.

What are the geographic restrictions?

Is your population of interest dispersed over too broad a geographic range for you to study feasibly with a personal interview? It may be possible for you to send a mail instrument to a nationwide sample. You may be able to conduct phone interviews with them. But it will almost certainly be less feasible to do research that requires interviewers to visit directly with respondents if they are widely dispersed.

Sampling Issues

The sample is the actual group you will have to contact in some way. There are several important sampling issues you need to consider when doing survey research.

What data is available?

What information do you have about your sample? Do you know their current addresses? Their current phone numbers? Are your contact lists up to date?

Can respondents be found?

Can your respondents be located? Some people are very busy. Some travel a lot. Some work the night shift. Even if you have an accurate phone or address, you may not be able to locate or make contact with your sample.

Who is the respondent?

Who is the respondent in your study? Let's say you draw a sample of households in a small city. A household is not a respondent. Do you want to interview a specific individual? Do you want to talk only to the "head of household" (and how is that person defined)? Are you willing to talk to any member of the household? Do you state that you will speak to the first adult member of the household who opens the door? What if that person is unwilling to be interviewed but someone else in the house is willing? How do you deal with multi-family households? Similar problems arise when you sample groups, agencies, or companies. Can you survey any member of the organization? Or, do you only want to speak to the Director of Human Resources? What if the person you would like to interview is unwilling or unable to participate? Do you use another member of the organization?

Can all members of population be sampled?

If you have an incomplete list of the population (i.e., sampling frame) you may not be able to sample every member of the population. Lists of various groups are extremely hard to keep up to date. People move or change their names. Even though they are on your sampling frame listing, you may not be able to get to them. And, it's possible they are not even on the list.

Are response rates likely to be a problem?

Even if you are able to solve all of the other population and sampling problems, you still have to deal with the issue of response rates. Some members of your sample will simply refuse to respond. Others have the best of intentions, but can't seem to find the time to send in your questionnaire by the due date. Still others misplace the instrument or forget about the appointment for an interview. Low response rates are among the most difficult of problems in survey research. They can ruin an otherwise well-designed survey effort.

Question Issues

Sometimes the nature of what you want to ask respondents will determine the type of survey you select.

What types of questions can be asked?

Are you going to be asking personal questions? Are you going to need to get lots of detail in the responses? Can you anticipate the most frequent or important types of responses and develop reasonable closed-ended questions?

How complex will the questions be?

Sometimes you are dealing with a complex subject or topic. The questions you want to ask are going to have multiple parts. You may need to branch to sub-questions.

Will screening questions be needed?

A screening question may be needed to determine whether the respondent is qualified to answer your question of interest. For instance, you wouldn't want to ask someone their opinions about a specific computer program without first "screening" them to find out whether they have any experience using the program. Sometimes you have to screen on several variables (e.g., age, gender, experience). The more complicated the screening, the less likely it is that you can rely on paper-and-pencil instruments without confusing the respondent.

Can question sequence be controlled?

Is your survey one where you can construct in advance a reasonable sequence of questions? Or, are you doing an initial exploratory study where you may need to ask lots of follow-up questions that you can't easily anticipate?

Will lengthy questions be asked?

If your subject matter is complicated, you may need to give the respondent some detailed background for a question. Can you reasonably expect your respondent to sit still long enough in a phone interview to ask your question?

Will long response scales be used?

If you are asking people about the different computer equipment they use, you may have to have a lengthy response list (CD-ROM drive, floppy drive, mouse, touch pad, modem, network connection, external speakers, etc.). Clearly, it may be difficult to ask about each of these in a short phone interview.

Content Issues

The content of your study can also pose challenges for the different survey types you might utilize.

Can the respondents be expected to know about the issue?

If the respondent does not keep up with the news (e.g., by reading the newspaper, watching television news, or talking with others), they may not even know about the news issue you want to ask them about. Or, if you want to do a study of family finances and you are talking to the spouse who doesn't pay the bills on a regular basis, they may not have the information to answer your questions.

Will respondent need to consult records?

Even if the respondent understands what you're asking about, you may need to allow them to consult their records in order to get an accurate answer. For instance, if you ask them how much money they spent on food in the past month, they may need to look up their personal check and credit card records. In this case, you don't want to be involved in an interview where they would have to go look things up while they keep you waiting (they wouldn't be comfortable with that).

Bias Issues

People come to the research endeavor with their own sets of biases and prejudices. Sometimes, these biases will be less of a problem with certain types of survey approaches.

Can social desirability be avoided?

Respondents generally want to "look good" in the eyes of others. None of us likes to look like we don't know an answer. We don't want to say anything that would be embarrassing. If you ask people about information that may put them in this kind of position, they may not tell you the truth, or they may "spin" the response so that it makes them look better. This may be more of a problem in an interview situation where they are face-to face or on the phone with a live interviewer.

Can interviewer distortion and subversion be controlled?

Interviewers may distort an interview as well. They may not ask questions that make them uncomfortable. They may not listen carefully to respondents on topics for which they have strong opinions. They may make the judgment that they already know what the respondent would say to a question based on their prior responses, even though that may not be true.

Can false respondents be avoided?

With mail surveys it may be difficult to know who actually responded. Did the head of household complete the survey or someone else? Did the CEO actually give the responses or instead pass the task off to a subordinate? Is the person you're speaking with on the phone actually who they say they are? At least with personal interviews, you have a reasonable chance of knowing who you are speaking with. In mail surveys or phone interviews, this may not be the case.

Administrative Issues

Last, but certainly not least, you have to consider the feasibility of the survey method for your study.


Cost is often the major determining factor in selecting survey type. You might prefer to do personal interviews, but can't justify the high cost of training and paying for the interviewers. You may prefer to send out an extensive mailing but can't afford the postage to do so.


Do you have the facilities (or access to them) to process and manage your study? In phone interviews, do you have well-equipped phone surveying facilities? For focus groups, do you have a comfortable and accessible room to host the group? Do you have the equipment needed to record and transcribe responses?


Some types of surveys take longer than others. Do you need responses immediately (as in an overnight public opinion poll)? Have you budgeted enough time for your study to send out mail surveys and follow-up reminders, and to get the responses back by mail? Have you allowed for enough time to get enough personal interviews to justify that approach?


Different types of surveys make different demands of personnel. Interviews require interviewers who are motivated and well-trained. Group administered surveys require people who are trained in group facilitation. Some studies may be in a technical area that requires some degree of expertise in the interviewer.

Clearly, there are lots of issues to consider when you are selecting which type of survey you wish to use in your study. And there is no clear and easy way to make this decision in many contexts. There may not be one approach which is clearly the best. You may have to make trade offs of advantages and disadvantages. There is judgment involved. Two expert researchers may, for the very same problem or issue, select entirely different survey methods. But, if you select a method that isn't appropriate or doesn't fit the context, you can doom a study before you even begin designing the instruments or questions themselves.

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