Neurological Techniques

1. CT Scan (Computerized Tomography Scanner)

(Some Writing about Brain with Computer)
It is also called CAT-Computerized Axial Topography.It is a technique in which a device is used with computer to analyze data obtained by the scanning a beam of x-ray to procedure a two dimensional picture of a slice through body.It was firstly introduced in 1983. It an important medical toll for structural imaging of neurological damage in living people.This method is used for the diagnostic process of "Strock, Hemorrhage, Tumor and so on and some disorders of Memory, Language, Attention and other cognitive functions.It is also involved in finding out some "Lesion" of the brain.
Procedurally the patient's head is traced in a wrong shaped instrument.This ring is contained X-ray tube directly opposite to patient's head.A ray of beam passes through the patient's head and detector measures the amount of radio-activity and computer translate the number from the detector into pictures of the skull and its contents.

2. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

This technique is resembled to CT-Scan but it does not use X-ray.A strong magnetic field is used which is consist on Radio-waves and strong magnetic field. MRI is used to see the individual's Sulci (miner parts of cerebral cortex). It is also involved for the diagnostic of demilenation which is the major characteristic multiple sclerosis.
Procedurally a person's body is placed in a strong magnetic field.The nuclei of some atoms in molecules in the body spin with a particular orientation. A radio frequency is passed to the body.These nuclei emit radio waves of their own. For this purpose different molecules emit energy at different frequencies. MRI scanner is tuned to detect the radiation of this radiation prepare pictures of slices of brain.

Converging Techniques

1. TMS (Trans Cranial Magnetic Stimulation)

This method is used to stimulation of cortex by the magnetic field produce by alternating current passing through a coil placed against the skull disrupts normal activities of the affected brain regions.
Procedurally it is consisted of a tidily wrapped wire coil that is in cased in an insulated sheet and connected to a source of powerful electrical capacitor.This capacitor send a large electrical current through the coil resulting in the generation of magnetic field.When the coil is placed on the surface of skull the magnetic field passes through the skin and induced a physiological current that result in the firing of neuron.
This method is used to explore the role of many different brain areas.This method is specially used in Clinical Psychology.

2. EEG (Electro Encephlo Gram)

It is defined as an electrical brain potential recorded by placing electrodes on the scalp.This method is mostly used to diagnose Epilepsy, Brain tumour and stages of sleep.It is also called writings of electricity from the brain. It is also known as recording and study of gross electrical activity of the brain recorded from large electrodes placed on the Head.
Hans Berger discovered this method in 1924.

3. ERP (Event Related Potential)

This method is also known as Evoked Potential in which gross potential charges evoked by discrete stimuli such as light flashes etc. The ERP provide a way to assess the integrity and function of the brain "STEM" and especially its Auditory pathways, it detects in the brain activity rapidly.

4. MEG (Magneto Encephlo Graphy)

It is a technique which is used to measure the magnetic signals generated by the brain measured by sensitive magnetic detectors places along the head similar to the way EEG measure the surface electrical activity.

5. f MRI (Functional MRI)

It is the modification of MRI, just like MRI scanner acquire images rapidly and permit the measurement of regional metabolism in the brain. It is the more advance method which revealed more detail information about the activity of the brain.

6. PET (Positron Emission Topography)

This method is used to measure the metabolic activity of the specific brain region.

Lesion Technique

Lesion mean an injury or wound so it is defined as technique in which behavior of organism with its brain is studied e.g Low behavior is altered by selective removing one or two parts of the brain. Procedurally it can be done through surgery or by excitotoxically.

Knock out Procedure

This technique is used for the alternation and elimination of the specific genes. This technique is used to study behavioral changes that occure in organism that have developed without the targeted genes or to observed how genes code the development of nervous system.

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