RSS

What is Psychology?

The word psychology is from Greek: ψυχή (psukhē: "breath", "spirit", "soul"); and -λογία (-logia: "study of")
.
1. "Psychology is a branch of science which deals with the study of human mind and behavior".

2. "The knowledge of human mind and behavior is called Psychology".
Psychological knowledge is applied to various spheres of human activity including the family, education, employment, and to the treatment of mental health problems.

3. Psychology (its. "study of the soul" or "study of the mind".

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Abnormality and Normality

Abnormality

( According to Morgan & King 1986)

Abnormality is the significant deviation from commonly accepted patterns of behavior, emotion or thought".

Normality

The absence of illness and the presence of state of well being called normality.

Abnormal psychology is the study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. Abnormal psychology studies the nature of psychopathology and its causes, and this knowledge is applied in clinical psychology to treat patients with psychological disorders.

It can be difficult to draw the line between normal and abnormal behaviors. In general, abnormal behaviors must be maladaptive and cause an individual significant discomfort in order to be of clinical and research interest. According to the DSM-IV-TR, behaviors may be considered abnormal if they are associated with disability, personal distress, the violation of social norms, or dysfunction.
German physician Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological research at Leipzig University in Germany, for which Wundt is known as the "father of psychology".
The American philosopher and psychologist William James published his seminal book, Principles of Psychology in 1890, laying the foundations for many of the questions on which psychologists would focus for years to come. Other important early contributors to the field include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909), a pioneer in the experimental study of memory at the University of Berlin; and the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936) who investigated the learning process now referred to as classical conditioning.

Psychological Disorder.

Psychological disorders are defined as "the patterns of abnormal behavior, emotions or thought that significantly interfere with an individual to important life demands and often cause distress in the individual or in others".

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Personality Psychology

Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognition, motivations, and behaviors in various situations.

  • The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona, which means mask. Significantly, in the theater of the ancient Latin.
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and individual differences. Its areas of focus include:

  • Constructing a coherent picture of a person and his or her major psychological processes.
  • Investigating individual differences, that is, how people can differ from one another.
  • Investigating human nature, that is, how all people's behavior is similar.

Personality Disorders.

(According to Zimbardo & Gerrig 'Psychology & Life 1996)

"A personality disorder is longstanding (chronic), inflexible, maladaptive pattern of perceiving, thinking and behaving".

Personnel Selection: Methods: Personality Tests

Personality Tests: A selection procedure measure the personality characteristics of applicants that are related to future job performance. Personality tests typically measure one or more of five personality dimensions: extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience.

Advantages
  • Can result in lower turnover due if applicants are selected for traits that are highly correlated with employees who have high longevity within the organization.
  • Can reveal more information about applicant's abilities and interests.
  • Can identify interpersonal traits that may be needed for certain jobs.

Disadvantages
  • Difficult to measure personality traits that may not be well defined.
  • Applicant's training and experience may have greater impact on job performance than applicant's personality.
  • Responses by applicant may may be altered by applicant's desire to respond in a way they feel would result in their selection.
  • Lack of diversity if all selected applicants have same personality traits.
  • Cost may be prohibitive for both the test and interpretation of results.
  • Lack of evidence to support validity of use of personality tests.
Tips
  • Select traits carefully an employer that selects applicants with high degree of 'assertiveness', 'independence', and 'self-confidence' may end up excluding females significantly more than males which would result in adverse impact.
  • Select tests carefully Any tests should have been analyzed for (high) reliability and (low) adverse impact.
  • Not used exclusively Personality tests should not be the sole instrument used for selecting applicants. Rather, they should be used in conjunction with other procedures as one element of the selection process. Applicants should not be selected on the basis of personality tests alone.
Summary of Personality Tests
  1. Since there is not a correct answer to personality tests, the scoring of the procedure could be questioned.
  2. Recent litigation has suggested that some items for these types of tests may be too intrusive (Soroka v. Dayton Hudson, 1991).
  3. This technique lacks face validity. In other words, it would be difficult to show how individual questions on certain personality measures are job related even if the overall personality scale is a valid predictor of job performance.
  4. Hooke and Krauss (1971) administered three (3) tests to sergeant candidates; the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Allport-Vemon-Lindzey Study of Values, and the Gough Adjective Check List. These tests did not differentiate candidates rated as good sergeant material from those rates as poorer candidates. The researchers concluded that the groups may have been so similar that these tests were not sensitive enough to differentiate them.

Types of Personality Tests

1. Personal Attribute Inventory.

An interpersonal assessment instrument which consists of 50 positive and 50 negative adjectives from Gough's Adjective Check List. The subject is to select 30 which are most descriptive of the target group or person in question. This instrument was specifically designed to tap affective reactions and may be used in either assessing attitudes toward others or as a self-concept scale.

2. Personality Adjective Checklist.

A comprehensive, objective measure of eight personality styles (which are closely aligned with DSM-III-R Axis II constructs). These eight personality styles are: introversive, inhibited, cooperative, sociable, confident, forceful, respectful, and sensitive. This instrument is designed for use with non-psychiatric patients and normal adults who read minimally at the eighth grade level. Test reports are computer-generated and are intended for use by qualified professionals only. Interpretive statements are based on empirical data and theoretical inference. They are considered probabilistic in nature and cannot be considered definitive.

3. Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory.

Self-scoring six-point rating scale is a training instrument designed to provide feedback to individuals about their potential for cross-cultural effectiveness. It is most effective when used as part of a training program. It can also be used as a team-building tool for culturally diverse work groups and as a counseling tool for people in the process of cross-cultural adjustment. The inventory contains 50 items, distributed among 4 sub-scales:
  • Emotional resilience,
  • Flexibility/openness,
  • Perceptual acuity,
  • Personal autonomy,
4. California Psychological Inventory.

Multipurpose questionnaire designed to assess normal personality characteristics important in everyday life that individuals make use of to understand, classify, and predict their own behaviors and that of others. In this revision, two new scales, empathy and independence, have been added; semantic changes were made in 29 items; and 18 items were eliminated. The inventory is applicable for use in a variety of settings, including business and industry, schools and colleges, clinics and counseling agencies, and for cross cultural and other research. May be used to advise employees/applicants about their vocational plans.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Counseling Psychology

  1. "Counseling mean given advice and exchanging information".
  2. "Counseling psychology mean individual who need assistance in coping with stresses and tasks of everyday life".

Counseling psychology seeks to facilitate personal and interpersonal functioning across the lifespan with a focus on emotional, social, vocational, educational, health-related, developmental, and organizational concerns. Counselors are primarily clinicians, using psychotherapy and other interventions in order to treat clients. Traditionally, counseling psychology has focused more on normal developmental issues and everyday stress rather than psychopathology, but this distinction has softened over time. Counseling psychologists are employed in a variety of settings, including universities, hospitals, schools, governmental organizations, businesses, private practice, and community mental health centers.

Goals f Counseling Psychology.

Questions about counseling goals are rightfully raised by the individuals preparing to become Counselors by those who seek counseling by other helping specialists, by public officials in various organizations and agencies and by the public.

The following questions are example:

What do you try to do in counseling?
What is the purpose of counseling?
What is the aim of counseling?
What are the objectives of counseling?
What results are expected from counseling?

1. Behavioral Change
2. Positive Mental Health
3. Problem Resolution
4. Personal Effectiveness
5. Decision Making

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Educational Psychology

Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Educational psychology is concerned with how students learn and develop, often focusing on subgroups such as gifted children and those subject to specific disabilities. Although the terms "educational psychology" and "school psychology" are often used interchangeably, researchers and theorists are likely to be identified in the US and Canada as educational psychologists, whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists. This distinction is however not made in the UK, where the generic term for practitioners is "Educational psychologist".
The work of child psychologists such as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Bernard Luskin and Jerome Bruner has been influential in creating teaching methods and educational practices. Educational psychology is often included in teacher education programs, at least in North America, Australia, and NewZealand.
Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology, bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of specialties within educational studies, including instructional design, educational technology, curriculum development, organizational learning, special education and classroom management. Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences. In universities, departments of educational psychology are usually housed within faculties of education, possibly accounting for the lack of representation of educational psychology content in introductory psychology textbooks.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Global Psychology

Global psychology is a sub-field of psychology that addresses the issues raised in the global sustainability debate. Like critical psychology. Global psychology expands the objective of psychology to macro-level trends; it examines the overwhelming consequences of global warming, economic destabilization and other large-scale phenomena, while recognizing that global sustainability can best be achieved by psychologically sound individuals and cultures. Global psychologists advocate a simple and sensible, yet comprehensive, psychology, whose strength is its focus on the long-term well-being of all of humanity.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Health Psychology

Health psychology is concerned with understanding how biology, behavior, and social context influence health and illness. Health psychologists work alongside other medical professionals in clinical settings, work on behavior change in public health promotion, teach at universities, and conduct research. Although its early beginnings can be traced to the kindred field of clinical psychology, four different divisions within health psychology and one allied field have developed over time. The four divisions include clinical health psychology, public health psychology, community health psychology, and critical health psychology.The allied field is occupational health psychology.

Health psychology is the application of psychological theory and research to health, illness and health care. Whereas clinical psychology focuses on mental health and neurological illness, health psychology is concerned with the psychology of a much wider range of health-related behavior including healthy eating, the doctor-patient relationship, a patient's understanding of health information, and beliefs about illness. Health psychologists may be involved in public health campaigns, examining the impact of illness or health policy on quality of life and in research into the psychological impact of health and social care.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Industrial and organizational psychology applies psychological concepts and methods to optimize human potential in the workplace. Personal psychology is a sub-field of I-O psychology, applies the methods and principles of psychology in selecting and evaluating workers. I-O psychology's other sub-field, organizational psychology, examines the effects of work environments and management styles on worker motivation, job satisfaction, and productivity.

In industry and business tests are helpful in selection and classifying personal for placement in jobs that range from the simpler semiskilled to the highly skilled, from the selection of filling clerks and sales-person to top management for any of these position, however test results are only one source of information , though an important one.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology (also known as I-O psychology, industrial-organizational psychology, work psychology, organizational psychology, work and organizational psychology, industrial psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment) applies psychology to organizations and the workplace. In January 2010, the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) announced that, as a result of a membership vote, it would retain its name and not change it to the Society for Organizational Psychology (TSOP) to eliminate the word "Industrial". "Industrial-organizational psychologists contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance and well-being of its people. An I-O psychologist researches and identifies how behaviors and attitudes can be improved through hiring practices, training programs, and feedback systems."

I-O psychology is represented by Division 14 the American Psychological Association.

Common research and practice areas for I-O psychologists include:
  • Job performance/Job analysis
  • Personnel recruitment and selection
  • Performance appraisal/management
  • Individual assessment (knowledge, skills, and ability testing, personality assessment, work sample tests, assessment centers)
  • Psychometric
  • Compensation
  • Training and training evaluation/Development
  • Employment law
  • Work motivation
  • Job attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction, commitment, organizational citizenship, and retaliation)
  • Occupational health and safety
  • Work/life balance
  • Human factors and decision making
  • Organizational culture/climate
  • Organizational surveys
  • Leadership and executive coaching
  • Ethics
  • Diversity
  • Job design
  • Human resources
  • Organizational development (OD)
  • Organizational research methods
  • Technology in the workplace
  • Group/team performance
  • Employ safety and health
I-O psychologists are trained in the “scientist-practitioner” model. The training enables I-O psychologists to employ scientific principles and research-based designs to generate knowledge. They use what they have learned in applied settings to help clients address workplace needs. I-O psychologists are employed as professors, researchers, and consultants. They also work within organizations, often as part of a human resources department where they coordinate hiring and organizational development initiatives from an evidence-based perspective.
Industrial psychology is a relatively new branch of psychology that was created for corporations and organizations that needed more structure. Industrial psychology is able to provide this structure by evaluating employee behavior for the good of the company. It is often referred to as organizational psychology because of its emphasis on analyzing individuals who work for various organizations.

Essentially, industrial psychologists study the behavior of employees in a work setting. Although industrial psychology didn't begin until the 1920's, the discipline has evolved rapidly and revolutionized the workplace within the last century. Because the workplace is a social system, the application of industrial psychology is useful in understanding its complexity.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Human Resource Management HRM

  • "HRM is the process of acquiring, training, appraising & compensating employees and attending to their labour relation health safety and fairness concerns".
  • "HRM is the utilization of human resource to achieve organizational objectives".
HRM refers to these tasks and duties perform both small & large organizations such as skills and limitations of workforce. In short HR Managers are professionals who understand the business complexes of a company. Many organizations are successful because of HR Managers select " Right Man for Right Job ".

For many years it has said that Capital is the bottle neck for developing industry. But I think that the Workforce and the Management are the bottle neck for the production and the success of company.

Management Process.

  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Leading
  • Controlling
  • Measuring

Task and Duties of HR Manager

HR Managers perform duties like Recruiting, Selection, Developing, Counseling and Rewarding employees.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Social Psychology

"Social psychology studies the nature and causes of social behavior".

"MAN IS A SOCIAL ANIMAL BY HIS NATURE"
(Aristotle)
  • "Social psychology is the study of ways in which thoughts, feelings, perceptions, motives & behavior are influenced by interaction and transactions between people".
  • (Zimbardo & Gerig)
  • 2. "Social psychology studies man as a social animal who interacts frequently, if not continually, with other humans and groups ranging from the family to the society".
  • (New Comb)
Social psychology is the study of social behavior and mental processes, with an emphasis on how humans think about each other and how they relate to each other. Social psychologists are especially interested in how people react to social situations. They study such topics as the influence of others on an individual's behavior (e.g. conformity, persuasion), and the formation of beliefs, attitudes, and stereotypes about other people.
The study of group dynamics reveals information about the nature and potential optimization of leadership, communication, and other phenomena that emerge at least at the micro-social level. In recent years, many social psychologists have become increasingly interested in implicit measures, mediational models, and the interaction of both person and social variables in accounting for behavior.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Observation in Natural Settings

Naturalistic observation

Naturalistic observation is a method of observation, commonly used by psychologists, behavioral scientists and social scientists, that involves observing subjects in their natural habitats. Researchers take great care in avoiding making interferences with the behavior they are observing by using unobtrusive methods. Objectively, studying events as they occur naturally, without intervention. (Manoli, Frank, 2007)
In the same way Jane Goodall studied the role of chimpanzee social and family life, psychologists conduct similar observational studies in human social, professional and family lives.

Sometimes the participants are aware they are being observed and other times the participants do not know they are being observed. "They can be overt (the participants are aware they are being observed) or covert (the participants do not know they are being observed)".
There are obviously more ethical guidelines to take into consideration when a covert observation is being carried out.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Neuropsychology

Neuropsychology is the basic scientific discipline that studies the structure and function of the brain related to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. The term neuropsychology has been applied to lesion studies in humans and animals. It has also been applied to efforts to record electrical activity from individual cells (or groups of cells) in higher primates (including some studies of human patients).

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Clinical Psychology

Clinical psychology includes the scientific study and application of psychology for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.Central to its practice are psychological assessment and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration. In many countries clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession.

The field is often considered to have begun in 1896 with the opening of the first psychological clinic at the University of Pennsylvania by Lightener Witmer. In the first half of the 20th century, clinical psychology was focused on psychological assessment, with little attention given to treatment. This changed after the 1940s when World War II resulted in the need for a large increase in the number of trained clinicians. Since that time, two main educational models have developed—the PhD. science-practitioner model (focusing on research) and the Psy.D. practitioner-scholar model (focusing on clinical practice). Clinical psychologists are now considered experts in providing psychotherapy, and generally train within four primary theoretical orientations—Psycho-dynamic, Humanistic, Cognitive Behavioral, and Systems or Family therapy.

Clinical psychology may be confused with psychiatry, which generally has similar goals (e.g. the alleviation of mental distress), but is unique in that psychiatrists are physicians with medical degrees. As such, they tend to focus on medication-based solutions, although some also provide psycho-therapeutic services as well. In practice, clinical psychologists often work in multidisciplinary teams with other professionals such as psychiatrists, occupational therapists, social workers, and licensed counselors to bring a multimodal approach to complex patient problems.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Psychological Development

The theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Much like Sigmund Freud, Erickson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Unlike Freud’s theory of psycho-sexual stages, Erickson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan.

One of the main elements of Erickson's psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego identity.1 Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction. According to Erickson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experience and information we acquire in our daily interactions with others. In addition to ego identity, Erickson also believed that a sense of competence also motivates behaviors and actions. Each stage in Erickson's theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life. If the stage is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery, which he sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality.2 If the stage is managed poorly, the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy.

In each stage, Erickson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. In Erickson’s view, these conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

What is Borderline Personality Disorder?

According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), borderline personality disorder is:

"A serious mental illness characterized by pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationships, self-image, and behavior".
This instability often disrupts family and work life, long-term planning, and the individual's sense of self-identity."

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder

Individuals with borderline personality disorder:
Experience a pervasive pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships and have difficulties with moods and self-image. Impulsivity is also extremely common.
Often have intense episodes of anxiety, depression, and irritability lasting from a few hours to several days.
May direct anger outward in the form of physical aggression, but may also engage in self-destructive behaviors such as drug abuse, eating disorders, or suicidal gestures. These behaviors are often intended to manipulate others.
Usually have poor self-identity that leads to overly intense relationships with others. These interactions are generally filled with conflict, and the individual with borderline personality will vacillate between idealizing other people and undervaluing them.
Tend to become angry and frustrated when other people fail to meet unrealistic expectations.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Treatment for Bodyline Personality Disorder

Therapy is often effective in many patients, especially treatment that utilizes cognitive-behavioral approaches. The goal of the therapist is to help the client learn to be more aware of other people’s perspectives.
Psychiatric drugs such as antidepressants are often effective, both alone and in combination with psychotherapy. Anti-psychotic medications are sometimes used in cases involving distorted thinking patterns

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Stage 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust

The first stage of Erickson theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life.
Because an infant is utterly dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child’s caregivers.
If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

The second stage of Erickson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control.2
Like Freud, Erickson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. However, Erickson's reasoning was quite different then that of Freud's. Erickson believe that learning to control one’s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence.
Other important events include gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection.
Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Stage 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt

During the preschool years, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction.
Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, self-doubt and lack of initiative.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Stage 4 - Industry vs. Inferiority

This stage covers the early school years from approximately age 5 to 11.
Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities.
Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to be successful.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Stage 5 - Identity vs. Confusion

During adolescence, children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self.
Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Stage 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation

This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are exploring personal relationships.
Erickson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other people. Those who are successful at this step will develop relationships that are committed and secure.
Remember that each step builds on skills learned in previous steps. Erickson believed that a strong sense of personal identity was important to developing intimate relationships. Studies have demonstrated that those with a poor sense of self tend to have less committed relationships and are more likely to suffer emotional isolation, loneliness, and depression.

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

Mind Study

Loading...